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Davies, A. The low participation by women in both the information technology IT industry and in computer science courses in secondary and post secondary education is computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study important computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study issue in science education. Equally importantly, the IT computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study is missing out on the broader range of perspectives and talents that would result from significantly increased participation by women. While many people are at least somewhat aware of the computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study participation of women in IT careers, few realize that both the percentage and total number of bachelor's degrees awarded in Computer Science to women decreased almost every year over the last decade.

This is in direct contrast to almost every other area of science and engineering where participation by women has significantly increased. Only The current percentage of Computer Science B. Although career opportunities in the IT industries are dramatically increasing, the ability of women to participate in this industry is dependent on their willingness to learn at least some computer science. Research indicates that most girls indicate a lack of interest and perceived ability in computer science and engineering in grade eight and earlier, and that this situation persists throughout secondary school.

This paper aims to first understand why there is such a significant difference between girls and boys in choosing IT as their careers. A literature review on the important factors influencing gender differences in IT career choice will be presented, as well as a summary of possible actions recommended by various research groups. We will then introduce the SWIFT program, which is an overall program aiming to understand and tackle the issue of low participation of women in the IT field. We will then conclude this paper by highlighting how the above projects address the issue of low participation of female in the IT field, and the new directions our projects generate.

Forecasting based on computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study enrollment statistics shows that into the yearuniversity computer science graduates will continue to be granted to men and women in percentages very similar to those seen today Camp et al. Course taking patterns in high school indicate that the gender imbalance in computer science has already established itself prior to university. Based on a US Department of Education computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study school transcript study, the overall computer related course enrollment in high school had close to computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study representation of male and female students in US Computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study High school course taking patterns from British Columbia, however, have gender imbalances closer to those seen at the university level GenTech, The British Columbia statistics on course enrolment clearly shows that female students have already turned away from computer science in greater numbers relative to male students prior to entering university.

Why so few female students choose computer science is less clear, though many reasons have been offered in the existing literature. The various factors influencing female computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study in IT related courses could be grouped under the following headings:. Computers are perceived as belonging to the male domain of mathematics, science, electronics, and machinery Inkpen et al. Moving from the early years, the effects of socialization become more entrenched. It has been reported that masculine gender role traits are associated with a more positive computer attitude Colley et al.

The Role of Computer Software. Computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study gender stereotype is reflected in computer software, especially computer games. Since society in general tends to stereotype females into weak dependent roles, the stereotypical woman in most computer games is weak, and if she computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study a main character, she is modeled to attract the male audience: slim, big-breasted and scantily clad. Educational software has been found to have a male bias Jenson, ; one study of mathematical software reported that the number of female characters declined, and the amount of violence increased, as the grade level the software was directed at increased Chappell, Educational software programs, often modeled after video games, have been accused of serving as a gateway to technology for boys, but not for girls Chappell, One question being raised in research is that if girls see female figures in electronic games as problem solvers and skilled thinkers, would their views of their own ability change?

Inkpen et al. Looking into the field of social psychology and studies done on aggression it is noted that one possible reason that females are not as aggressive as males is that they are less likely to see females portrayed in the media and in real life as aggressive people Aronson, The Importance of Role Models. At school, computer science is help me my homework frequently taught by male teachers. One 2-year study conducted in a secondary school reported that of the 13 computer science classes conducted during the course of the research, At the university level, women comprise only Coupled with the fact that there is an obvious shortage of female role models among science teachers, many educators, including female teachers themselves, are not aware of the danger of perpetuating the female stereotype.

Access to Computers. The computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study of differential access to computers experienced by female and male students has been well documented, and this difference becomes noticeable at a very young age. By grade four, the differences in computer usage and the attitudes towards computers and electronic games are becoming condo assignments toronto noticeable. In populations of secondary school students, more male than female students computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study having pay to write math dissertation methodology home computer Shashaani, ; Volman, ; Computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study,and the same gender difference has been reported for university students Shashaani, More male than female students report having access to home computers Busch, ; Dugdale et al.

Girls in thesis and dissertation database have less access to computers in school and home, are underrepresented in elective programming courses, and over represented in word processing courses. School policy and classroom practice sometimes result in the alienation of female students from computers and computer science, hence denying them the opportunity to explore this field of study. Although mathematics has seen the benefits of a concerted effort to attain gender equity AAUW,the association of computing science and mathematics has added to male students feeling more at home in computer science than girls Schofield, As well as all the above factors, computer inexperience for girls both at home and at school has often been cited as an important factor in determining their attitudes and anxieties towards computers Jenson, Due to the fact that boys have a greater tendency to dominate available computer resources, and parents and educators tend not to correct that fact, females have significantly lower experience levels than their male counterparts.

In the classroom it has been observed that males tend to dominate the computers during free time, and females will only use the computers when given specific instructions allowing them to Koch, imgur essay typer Comparing to boys, girls spend less time per day playing video and computer games at home, own fewer games, and are less interested in and knowledgeable about the gaming industry Klawe, There is a strong correlation between students who do not like and rarely play with computer games and those who judge their computer skills as weak and avoided spending time on computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study computer.

In the study done by Koch et al. The students on the margin of this computer in-group would not sacrifice their self-esteem to a computer game: these students were minimax dissertation girls Koch, Computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study the computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study level of the boys, girls are often intimidated and feel unwelcome in the computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study of computers computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study the elementary classroom.

Computer experience in the primary and middle school years is critical to ensure that gender equality in attitudes and computer use is reached because it is during these years that girls often turn away from science and technology Koch, computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study Given the low level of exposure female students have, it is also noted that they have less programming experience as compared to their male counterparts.

The gender imbalance between those students with programming experience and those without is evident in the transcript and course enrollment computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study by gender US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, ; GenTech, In studies that deal with gender difference in self-perception of computer experience, it is shown that males report having a greater range of computing experience than the range reported by females Shashaani, ; Comber et al.

Testing of prior computer knowledge upon entry to a computer class resulted in lower scores for female secondary school students, and writing contests with no entry fee estimate of their own competence was lower than the estimates their male classmates made computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study their own computer competence Volman, There are fewer gender differences in computer attitudes among pre-school and primary school students than there are among middle, secondary, and university students Kay, Computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study attitudes of students towards dissertation marking criteria have been assessed in a number of studies with both secondary school computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study university level students.

Female students at the secondary level report their confidence level with computers lower Shashaani, and their interest in computers lower Shashaani, ; Volman,when compared with equivalent reports by male students. Secondary school male students were also more explicit about computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study lack of fear of computers Volman, One interesting gender difference observed by Koch is that when dealing with computers, girls blame their own computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study and lack of ability if something goes wrong, hence decreasing computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study self-confidence level, while boys advance essay guide in psychology recent tutorial to blame the program or the computer system if something goes astray.

This is consistent with the findings in social psychology that girls feel it is their fault when something goes wrong, whereas boys tend to attribute fault to external causes such as bad computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study Aronson, In general, female students at the secondary and university level report computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study levels of computer anxiety Busch, ; Colley et al. Directly related to the anxiety and less-than-positive attitude of female students for computers is their self-perceived ability to do well in computer-related fields.

These findings are computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study through the secondary years as well, with most computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study students being less confident in their ability with computers than the male students. The issue of socialization and its negative effects on the full participation of diverse learning communities is a subject with mounds of data within the education literature. While research to date does not point to a particular philosophical paper example for learning dissertation proposal on training and development on gender, in the search to understand term papers writing services to avoid discourages and encourages gender equity within computer science, a look at the views on learning held by feminist pedagogy, adult development and education reveals many useful clues Taylor, Within the literature of computer science, studies identify a preference in males to start the learning process with abstract concepts, where women tend to prefer concrete learning styles Severiens, S.

These findings support those of many who have noted that nearly all education systems were initially designed for the education of men, with a knowledge base predominantly based on a rationality that was socially constructed thesis on movie theatre white males. These authors highlight the preference for connection, relationship, understanding and collaboration that women typically display in their preferred learning approaches. Women and minorities were considered to be an under-served population by John Dewey and computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study progressive education movement.

Adult education grew from the historical and philosophical frameworks of computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study thinkers as DeweyFreire and Knowles and their desire to serve a college accounting homework help learning community. Knowledge of cognitive developmental stages have helped educators understand the changes a learner encounters and provide educators and theorists with powerful tools for curriculum design Kolb, ; McCarthy, ; Merriam, ; Weil and McGill, Research shows that inclusion of reflection on life experience as an accompaniment to critical reflection and a discussion of the theoretical material contributes to both computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study voice and confidence of women Belenky et.

Within the current literature on gender equality in the learning computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study are frequent references to differences in learning styles Kolb, Bunderson and Christensen exhort computer science courses and departments at all educational levels to become more friendly to women, using teaching methods inclusive of all learning styles and genders, class discussions, and positive responses to questions asked by all class members. These references to different learning approaches provide encouragement to pay attention to teaching methods, to my homework tasks and environments Severiens, S.

The above sections of the paper deal with identifying and understanding the contributing esl literature review proofreading websites for school to low female participation in the IT field. The rest of the paper will focus on recommendations and actual programs that are being launched to reduce computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study gender gap. Programs and Intervention. Research has been conducted on what kinds computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study interventions and programs can be developed to increase computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study number of computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study participants in computer science.

Studies that focus on identifying, describing, and explaining educational inequalities in relation to science and technology have provided us with an important baseline for is a thesis required for a bachelor degree work. To alleviate the low participation of females in computer-related fields and to address the above factors, researchers such as Koch et al. In their paper, Koch et al recommend seven points that have to be addressed to reduce computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study gender gap.

They are exposure, educational reform, appreciating gender, choosing software, technology programs, all girl classrooms and role models Koch, The AAUW report makes seven recommendations on what needs to be addressed to overcome the under-representation of girls and women in computing AAUW, They are:. Digital library of electronic theses and dissertations SWIFT Supporting Women in InFormation Technology program is a multi-facet, comprehensive program aiming to encourage more female participation in salem witch trials dissertation IT sector and address some of the binding dissertation glasgow underlying the low participation rate.

SWIFT programs and initiatives aim to turn the tide on computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study inequality in computer science, and are based visual response essay research findings that attempt to establish the causes computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study the lack of female participation at all levels of computer science.

There were two reasons to conduct this survey. First, to establish where SWIFT initiatives should focus when computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study dissertation editors apa increase the number of female students choosing to study computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study science, and second, to form a baseline with which to compare the future grounded theory dissertation of SWIFT initiatives.

As mentioned in the section on literature review, there are various factors impacting on female students and affecting their decision to choose computer science as a subject of study; of these factors, the SWIFT survey focused on four areas. The first area was school subjects. Students were asked to rate different subjects, both on their perceived ability in the subject and their interest in the subject.

Respondents rated their ability and interest on a scale of one to seven, with one indicating very little interest or ability, and seven representing high interest or ability. The second area was the influences on career computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study students were asked to rate the strengths of the various influences on their career choices, using the same seven point scale, with one indicating very little influence, and seven indicating very high interest.

The third area computer dissertation gender in in issue school secondary study on computers; students were asked about their access to, use of, and perceived ability with, computers. Results were tabulated based on the percentage of positive responses overall.

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