⌚ First Gang Research Paper
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These are: . According to one study, women often target other women, whereas men primarily stalk women. Census Bureau for the U. Department of Justice. In an article in the journal Sex Roles , Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling discusses how gender plays a role in the difference between stalkers and victims. She says, "gender is associated with the types of emotional reactions that are experienced by recipients of stalking related events, including the degree of fear experienced by the victim. She discusses how victims might view certain forms of stalking as normal because of gender socialization influences on the acceptability of certain behaviors. She emphasizes that in the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States, strangers are considered more dangerous when it comes to stalking than a former partner.
Media also plays an important role due to portrayals of male stalking behavior as acceptable, influencing men into thinking it is normal. Since gender roles are socially constructed, sometimes men don't report stalking. She also mentions coercive control theory; "future research will be needed to determine if this theory can predict how changes in social structures and gender-specific norms will result in variations in rates of stalking for men versus women over time in the United States and across the world. Psychologists often group individuals who stalk into two categories: psychotic and nonpsychotic. However, most stalkers are nonpsychotic and may exhibit disorders or neuroses such as major depression , adjustment disorder , or substance dependence , as well as a variety of personality disorders such as antisocial , borderline , or narcissistic.
The nonpsychotic stalkers' pursuit of victims is primarily angry, vindictive, focused, often including projection of blame , obsession , dependency , minimization , denial , and jealousy. In "A Study of Stalkers" Mullen et al. In addition to Mullen et al. Davis, Ph. This research culminated in one of the most comprehensive books written to date on the subject. Both the vengeance stalker and terrorist stalker the latter sometimes called the political stalker do not, in contrast with some of the aforementioned types of stalkers, seek a personal relationship with their victims but rather force them to emit a certain response. For example, most prosecutions in this stalking category have been against anti-abortionists who stalk doctors in an attempt to discourage the performance of abortions.
Stalkers may fit categories with paranoia disorders. Intimacy-seeking stalkers often have delusional disorders involving erotomanic delusions. With rejected stalkers, the continual clinging to a relationship of an inadequate or dependent person couples with the entitlement of the narcissistic personality, and the persistent jealousy of the paranoid personality. In contrast, resentful stalkers demonstrate an almost "pure culture of persecution ", with delusional disorders of the paranoid type, paranoid personalities, and paranoid schizophrenia.
One of the uncertainties in understanding the origins of stalking is that the concept is now widely understood in terms of specific behaviors  which are found to be offensive or illegal. As discussed above, these specific apparently stalking behaviors may have multiple motivations. In addition, the personality characteristics that are often discussed as antecedent to stalking may also produce behavior that is not conventionally defined as stalking. Some research suggests there is a spectrum of what might be called "obsessed following behavior.
Some of these people get extruded from their organizations—they may get hospitalized or fired or let go if their behavior is defined in terms of illegal stalking, but many others do good or even excellent work in their organizations and appear to have just one focus of tenacious obsession. Cyberstalking is the use of computers or other electronic technology to facilitate stalking.
In Davis , Lucks identified a separate category of stalkers who instead of a terrestrial means, prefer to perpetrate crimes against their targeted victims through electronic and online means. Alcohol and physical abuse both played a role in predicting women's cyberstalking and in men, "preoccupied attachment significantly predicted cyber stalking". According to a U. Department of Justice special report  a significant number of people reporting stalking incidents claim that they had been stalked by more than one person, with The report did not break down these cases into numbers of victims who claimed to have been stalked by several people individually, and by people acting in concert.
A question asked of respondents reporting three or more stalkers by polling personnel about whether the stalking was related to co-workers, members of a gang, fraternities, sororities, etc. Census Bureau for the Department of Justice. Over a quarter of all stalking and harassment victims do not know their stalkers in any capacity. About a tenth responding to the SVS did not know the identities of their stalkers. In , Pathe, Mullen and Purcell wrote that popular interest in stalking was promoting false claims. A study by Sheridan et.
There was no significant difference between the incidence of stalking in rural and urban areas. A similar retrospective study published in in Psychological Medicine based on a sample of threats to the Royal Family kept by the Metropolitan Police Service over a period of 15 years, suggested that Every Australian state enacted laws prohibiting stalking during the s, with Queensland being the first state to do so in The laws vary slightly from state to state, with Queensland's laws having the broadest scope, and South Australian laws the most restrictive.
Punishments vary from a maximum of 10 years imprisonment in some states, to a fine for the lowest severity of stalking in others. Australian anti-stalking laws have some notable features. Unlike many US jurisdictions they do not require the victim to have felt fear or distress as a result of the behaviour, only that a reasonable person would have felt this way. In some states, the anti-stalking laws operate extra-territorially, meaning that an individual can be charged with stalking if either they or the victim are in the relevant state. Most Australian states provide the option of a restraining order in cases of stalking, breach of which is punishable as a criminal offence.
There has been relatively little research into Australian court outcomes in stalking cases, although Freckelton found that in the state of Victoria , most stalkers received fines or community based dispositions. Section of the Criminal Code , titled "criminal harassment",  addresses acts which are termed "stalking" in many other jurisdictions. The provisions of the section came into force in August with the intent of further strengthening laws protecting women. Section has withstood Charter challenges. Article —33—2 of the French Penal Code added in penalizes "Moral harassment," which is: "Harassing another person by repeated conduct which is designed to or leads to a deterioration of his conditions of work liable to harm his rights and his dignity, to damage his physical or mental health or compromise his career prospects," with a year's imprisonment and a fine of EUR15, The definition is not strict and allows "similar behaviour" to also be classified as stalking.
In , Indian Parliament made amendments to the Indian Penal Code , introducing stalking as a criminal offence. A man committing the offence of stalking would be liable for imprisonment up to three years for the first offence, and shall also be liable to fine and for any subsequent conviction would be liable for imprisonment up to five years and with fine. Following a series of high-profile incidents that came to public attention, a law was proposed in June which became effective in February D.
If the perpetrator of the offense is a subject tied to the victim by kinship or that is or has been in the past involved in a relationship with the victim i. In , Japan enacted a national law to combat this behaviour, after the murder of Shiori Ino. In the Wetboek van Strafrecht , Article b  defines the crime of belaging harassment , which is a term used for stalking. Before the enactment of the Protection from Harassment Act , the Telecommunications Act criminalised indecent, offensive or threatening phone calls and the Malicious Communications Act criminalised the sending of an indecent, offensive or threatening letter, electronic communication or other article to another person. Before no specific offence of stalking existed in England and Wales, but in Scotland incidents could be dealt with under pre-existing law with life imprisonment available for the worst offences.
In England and Wales , " harassment " was criminalised by the enactment of the Protection from Harassment Act , which came into force on 16 June It makes it a criminal offence, punishable by up to six months' imprisonment, to make a course of conduct which amounts to harassment of another on two or more occasions. The court can also issue a restraining order, which carries a maximum punishment of five years' imprisonment if breached. In England and Wales , liability may arise if the victim suffers either mental or physical harm as a result of being harassed or slang term stalked see R. In , the Prime Minister, David Cameron , stated that the government intended to make another attempt to create a law aimed specifically at stalking behaviour.
The act of stalking under this section is exemplified by contacting, or attempting to contact, a person by any means, publishing any statement or other material relating or purporting to relate to a person, monitoring the use by a person of the Internet, email or any other form of electronic communication, loitering in any place whether public or private , interfering with any property in the possession of a person or watching or spying on a person. The Protection of Freedoms Act also added Section 4 a into the Protection From Harassment Act which covered 'Stalking involving fear of violence or serious alarm or distress'.
This created the offence of where a person's conduct amounts to stalking and either causes another to fear on at least two occasions that violence will be used against them or conduct that causes another person serious alarm or distress which has a substantial effect on their usual day to day activities. In Scotland , behaviour commonly described as stalking was already prosecuted as the common law offence of breach of the peace not to be confused with the minor English offence of the same description before the introduction of the statutory offence against s.
Provision is made under the Protection from Harassment Act against stalking to deal with the civil offence i. Victims of stalking may sue for interdict against an alleged stalker, or a non-harassment order, breach of which is an offence. California was the first state to criminalize stalking in the United States in  as a result of numerous high-profile stalking cases in California, including the attempted murder of actress Theresa Saldana ,  the massacre by Richard Farley ,  the murder of actress Rebecca Schaeffer ,  and five Orange County stalking murders, also in Watson with U.
Congressman Ed Royce introduced the law in Within three years  thereafter, every state in the United States followed suit to create the crime of stalking, under different names such as criminal harassment or criminal menace. The Driver's Privacy Protection Act DPPA was enacted in in response to numerous cases of a driver's information being abused for criminal activity, with prominent examples including the Saldana and Schaeffer stalking cases. In new amendments were made to the Clery Act to require reporting on stalking, domestic violence, and dating violence.
A persuasive thesis usually contains an opinion and the reason why your opinion is true. Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are the best type of sandwich because they are versatile, easy to make, and taste good. In this persuasive thesis statement, you see that I state my opinion the best type of sandwich , which means I have chosen a stance. Next, I explain that my opinion is correct with several key reasons. Just as there are two different types of thesis statements informative and persuasive , there are two basic styles you can use.
The first style uses a list of two or more points. This style of thesis is perfect for a brief essay that contains only two or three body paragraphs. This basic five-paragraph essay is typical of middle and high school assignments. In the above persuasive thesis, you can see my opinion about Narnia followed by three clear reasons. This thesis is perfect for setting up a tidy five-paragraph essay. In college, five paragraph essays become few and far between as essay length gets longer. Can you imagine having only five paragraphs in a six-page paper? For a longer essay, you need a thesis statement that is more versatile. Instead of listing two or three distinct points, a thesis can list one overarching point that all body paragraphs tie into.
Good vs. In this thesis, I have made a claim about the theme in Narnia followed by my reasoning. I am no longer limited in how many body paragraphs I can logically use. One thing I find that is helpful for students is having a clear template. Essay about love in the great gatsby. Bucerius law school dissertation case study neuropathic pain my best day of summer vacation essay, essay on value of games and sports for class 5. Short essay on mobile phone for students. Writing an essay on genre. Essay structure chart words essay on energy conservation.
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